Development and state-of-the art in green elevators technologies: A survey

Main Article Content

Nenad Zrnić
Andro Dragović
Nenad Kosanić
Vladan Milovanović


Green elevators represent a new standard in all elevator facilities. This paper analyzes all new technologies that need to be applied, and this refers to the energy efficiency of the drive, the use of a different configuration, and the changed components on the elevator. This paper also deals with models that change the classic motion of the elevator and emit low energy consumption. It is of the key importance to show which countries strive to replace all their plants with new configurations and regulations, where the most important fact is to perform an impact assessment on an annual basis. The main goal of this paper is to show that all components designed at the experimental level should be introduced into standard plants and reduce their production cost. From a comprehensive analysis of the previous research, it is concluded that the most significant advantages are achieved by using new electrical schemes, components, and energy sources that are not connected directly to the power distribution grid. At the end, from the corresponding literature, it is concluded that many major manufacturers in the elevator industry have to apply the modern technology from their development centers to existing standard elevators, in order to meet all new ecological and emission standards

Article Details

How to Cite
N. Zrnić, A. Dragović, N. Kosanić, and V. Milovanović, “Development and state-of-the art in green elevators technologies: A survey ”, ET, vol. 2, no. 3, Sep. 2023.
Review Papers


J. Khazaii, “Energy-Efficient HVAC Design - An Essential Guide for Sustainable Building”, Springer, New York (USA), (2014)

ISO (International Organisation for Standardization), ISO 14001:2015 Environmental Management Systems – Requirements, (2015)

F.J. Sprague, “Electric elevators, with detailed description of special types”, Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Vol. XIII, pp. 3-30,, (1896)

K. Al-Kodmany, “Elevator technology improvements: A snapshot”, Encyclopedia, Vol. 3, pp. 530–548, (2023)

R. Strakosch and R.S. Caporale, Editors, “The Vertical Transportation Handbook”, John Wiley & Sons, Oxford (UK),, (2010)

G. Barney and L. Al-Sharif, “Elevator Traffic Handbook - Theory and practice”, Routledge, Abington (UK), (2016)

G. Pederick, “How vertical transportation is helping transform modern city”, Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat - CTBUH, pp. 853–860, (2014)

S. Wang, D. Safarik, and Z. Wang, “Key trends in supertall buildings - A review of the world’s 100 tallest buildings in the last 30 years”, International Journal of High-Rise Buildings, Vol. 12(1), pp. 1-9, (2023)

F. Celik and B. Korbahti, “Why hydraulic elevators are so popular? Part II”, Blain Hydraulics, pp. 1-7, (2006)

F. Celik and B. Korbahti, “Why hydraulic elevators are so popular? Part II”, Blain Hydraulics, pp. 1-7, (2008)

R. Chandra Mohapatra, “A Review on multi-directional elevator”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), Vol. 10(8), pp.11-126, (2019)

A. De Almeida, S. Hirzel, C. Patrãoa, J. Fonga and E. Dütschke, “Energy-efficient elevators and escalators in Europe: An analysis of energy efficiency potentials and policy measures”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 47, pp. 151–158,, (2012)

G. Schiffner, “Machine room-less lifts”, Proceedings of Elevcon, pp. 71-78, (2000)

A. Pai, R. Nair, P. George and S. Subir, “A critical review and investigation of machine room less (MRL) elevators”, Journal of Applied of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 4(3), pp. 1-5,, (2015)

K. Al-Kodmany, “Tall buildings and elevators: A review of recent technological advances”, Buildings, Vol. 5, pp. 1070-1104,, (2015)

K. Al-Kodmany, “Tall buildings and elevators: New sustainable design”, in Sustainable Engineering Technologies and Architectures, edited by D. S-K. Ting and J. A. Stagner (AIP Publishing, Melville, New York, 2021), pp. 3-1–3-32,, (2021)

K. Al-Kodmany, “Smart elevator systems”, Journal of Mechanical Materials and Mechanics Research, Vol. 06(01), pp. 41-53,, (2023)

H. Choi, K. Cho and H. Bahn, “An energy-efficient elevator operating system that considers sensor information and electricity price changes in smart green buildings”, Journal of Modeling and Optimization, Vol. 11(1), pp. 1-7,, (2019)

G. Pederick, “How vertical transportation is helping transform modern city”, Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat - CTBUH, Chicago, IL, USA, 2014, pp. 853–860, (2014)

M. Jetter and S. Gerstenmeyer, “A next generation vertical transportation system”, Proceedings The Future of Tall: A Selection of Written Works on Current Skyscraper Innovation, pp. 102-111, (2015)

D. Chandankhede, S. Lokhande, J. Belkhode, S. Dhabarde and R. Patil, “Smart elevator system”, International Journal of Research In Science & Engineering, Vol. 3(2), pp. 39-46, (2017)

K. Jakimovska, V. Karatrajkov and A. Vasileva, “Implementation of a smart elevator”, Mechanical Engineering – Scientific Journal, Vol. 38(1), pp. 73–80, (2020)

S. Huseinbegovic, S. Kreso and O. Tanovic, “Design and implementation of the CAN based elevator control system”, XXII International Symposium on Information, Communication and Automation Technologies, ICAT, IEEE, pp. 1-6,, (2009)

A. Gatane, A. Dalvi, P. Arkal and S.M. Jagdale, “Using speech recognition create smart elevator controlling”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), Vol. 03(03), pp. 1075-1077, (2016)

S. Rotger-Griful, R. Hylsberg Jacobsen, R.S. Brewer and M.K. Rasmussen, “Green lift: Exploring the demand response potential of elevators in Danish buildings”, Energy Research & Social Science, Vol. 32, pp. 55-64,, (2017)

G. Barney and L. Al-Sharif, “Elevator Traffic Handbook - Theory and practice”, Routledge, Abingdon (UK), (2016)

J.R. Fernandez and P. Cortes, “A survey of elevator group control systems for vertical transportation: A look at recent literature”, IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Vol. 35(4), pp. 38–55,, (2015)

P. Cortés, L. Onieva, J. Guadix and J. Muñuzuri, “A brief review on vertical transportation research and open issues”, International Joint Conference - CIO-ICIEOM-IIE-AIM (IJC 2016), pp. 529-536, (2016).

R. Nichols, “The evolution of elevators: Digital interaction, physical human interface, intuitive behavior and mega-tall buildings”, Frontiers of Engineering: Reports on Leading-Edge Engineering from the 2017 Symposium, National Academy of Engineering, pp. 1-27, (2018)

B.A. Kitchenham, O.P. Brereton, D. Budgen, M. Turner, J. Bailey and S. Linkman, “Systematic literature reviews in software engineering–a systematic literature review”, Information and software technology, Vol. 51(1), pp. 7-15,, (2009)

M. Petticrew and H. Roberts, “Systematic Reviews in the Social Sciences: A Practical Guide”, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford (UK), (2006)

R. Van Houten, P.A. Nau and M. Merrigan, “Reducing elevator energy use: a comparison of posted feedback and reduced elevator convenience”, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 377-387,, (1981)

M.L. Siikonen, “Elevator traffic simulation”, Simulation, Vol. 61(4), pp. 257-267, (1993)

A.T. P. So and T.K. L. Li, “Energy performance assessment of lifts and escalators”, Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 21(2), pp. 107-115,, (2000)

L. Al-Sharif, “Lift energy consumption: General overview (1974-2001)”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Elevator Technologies, Elevcon 2002, Reprinted in: Elevator World October 2004 with permission, (2004)

L. Al-Sharif, R. Peters and R. Smith, “Elevator energy simulation model”, Elevator World, pp. 2-5, (2004)

T. Tyni and J. Ylinen, “Evolutionary bi-objective optimisation in the elevator car routing problem”, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 169(3), pp. 960–977,, (2006)

L. Yu, J. Zhou, S. Mabu, K. Hirasawa, J. Hu and S. Markon, “A double-Deck elevator group supervisory control system with destination floor guidance system using genetic network programming”, IEEJ Transactions EIS, Vol. 127(7), pp. 1115-1122,, (2007)

J. Zhou, L. Yu, S. Mabu, K. Hirasawa, J. Hu, S. Markon, “Elevator group supervisory control system using genetic network programming with macro nodes and reinforcement learning”, IEEJ Transactions EIS, Vol. 127(8), pp. 1234-1242,, (2007)

M. Hamdi and D.J. Mulvaney, “Prioritised A* search in real-time elevator dispatching”, Control Engineering Practice, Vol. 15(2), pp. 219–230,, (2007)

C. Patrão, J. Fong, L. Rivet and A. de Almeida, “Energy efficient elevators and escalators”, ECEEE 2009, Summer Study, Panel 4: Residential and commercial sectors, pp. 803-813, (2009)

H. Hakonen and M.L. Siikonen, “Elevator traffic simulation procedure”, Elevator World, Vol. 57(9), pp. 180–190, (2009)

E.K. Olander and F.F. Eves, “Elevator availability and its impact on stair use in a workplace”, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 31(2), pp. 200–206,, (2011)

I. Georgiev and S. Mirchevski, “Analysis of electrical energy consumption in elevator drives”, 15th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE/PEMC), IEEE, pp. 1-3, (2012)

J. Zhang and Q. Zong, “Energy-saving scheduling optimization under up-peak traffic for group elevator system in building”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 66, pp. 495–504,, (2013)

M.F. Adaka, N. Durub and H.T. Duru, “Elevator simulator design and estimating energy consumption of an elevator system”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 65, pp. 272–280,, (2013)

J.R. Fernandez, P. Cortes J. Guadix, and J. Munuzuri, “Dynamic fuzzy logic elevator group control system for energy optimization”, International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, Vol. 12(3), pp. 591–617,, (2013)

J. Sorsa and M.L. Siikonen, “Passenger batch arrivals at elevator lobbies”, Elevator World, (2013)

J. Bos, R. Dell, C.S. Wei and W. Foley, “Developing a methodology for measuring the comparative energy efficiency of elevators”, ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, IMECE2013, pp. 1-8,, (2013)

M.P. Shreelakshmi and V. Agarwal, “An energy efficient and environment friendly elevator system using ultracapacitor and fuel cell with power factor correction”, 2013 IEEE ECCE Asia Downunder, pp. 721–727,, (2013)

B. Plangklang, S. Kantawong, S. Dangeam and Y. Kumsuwan, “Elevator energy regenerative unit (EERU) for energy saving in a permanent magnet motor elevator system”, 17th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), pp. 2120–2124,, (2014)

N. Jabbour, C. Mademlis and I. Kioskeridis, “Improved performance in a supercapacitor-based energy storage control system with bidirectional DC-DC converter for elevator motor drives”, 7th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD 2014), pp. 1–6,, (2014)

S. Graham, “Super-tall and Ultra-deep: The cultural politics of the elevator”, Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 31(7/8), pp. 239–265,, (2014)

J.R. Fernandez, P. Cortes, J. Munuzuri and J. Guadix, “Dynamic fuzzy logic elevator group control system with relative waiting time consideration”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 61(9), pp. 4912–4919,, (2014)

A. Noppakant, B. Plangklang and Y. Paraken, “Study of power grid connection with an unstable source from Elevator Energy Regenerative Unit (EERU)”, Energy Procedia, Vol. 56, pp. 584–590,, (2014)

S.S. Ahmed, A. Iqbal, R. Sarwar and Md. S. Salam, “Modeling the energy consumption of a lift”, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 71, pp. 61–67,, (2014)

J. Müller, “Lift systems in high-rise buildings: Handling capacity and energy efficiency”, In: Symposium on Lift and Escalator Technologies, Northamption, pp. 161-166,, (2014)

G. Nobile, A.G. Sciacca, M. Cacciato, C. Cavallaro, A. Raciti, G. Scarcella and G. Scelba, “Energy harvesting in roped elevators”, International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion, IEEE, pp. 533-540,, (2014)

S. Mohaney and M. Shah, “Emerging trends in vertical elevating system”, International Journal of Engineering and Management Research (IJEMR), Vol. 5(1), pp. 51-56, (2015)

V. Pacheco, P. Molina-Gaudo, L. Jimenez and E. Oyarbide, “Improving the energy efficiency of lifts”, The 5th Symposium on Lift and Escalator Technologies, pp. 159-170, (2015)

L. Zhen, Z. Gruijun and W. Chen, “Green degree comprehensive evaluation of elevator based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process”, MATEC Web of Conferences 31, 03011, 03011-p1 - 03011-p4,, (2015)

A. So and L. Al-Sharif, “Elevator traffic analysis: Analytical versus simulated”, Elevator World, Elevator World, LLC (USA), (2015)

K-O. Schoellkopf and J. Muller, “New approaches for efficient people transportation in both dimensions - vertically and horizontally”, Proceedings, CTBUH Conference: Cities to Megacities: Shaping Dense Vertical Urbanism”, pp. 907-914, (2016)

T. Tukia, S. Uimonen, M-L. Siikonen, H. Hakala, C. Donghi and M. Lehtonen, “Explicit method to predict annual elevator energy consumption in recurring passenger traffic conditions”, Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. (8), pp. 179-188,, (2016)

E.O. Tartan and C. Ciftlikli, “A genetic algorithm based elevator dispatching method for waiting time optimization”, IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 49(3), pp. 424–429,, (2016)

V.A. Chilate, P.K. Jayakumar and K.V. Sai Srinadh, “Case Study on solar-powered hospital elevator to push green energy for the use of alternative energy sources sunlight”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering & Management (IJIREM), Vol. 3(6),, (2016)

K. Wang. G. Dai and L. Guo, “Intelligent predictive maintenance (IPdM) for elevator service through CPS, IOT&S and Data Mining”, International Workshop of Advanced Manufacturing and Automation (IWAMA 2016), pp. 1-6,, (2016)

Ν. Papanikolaou, M. Loupis, Ν. Spiropoulos, Ε. Mitronikas, Ε. Τatakis, C. Christodoulou, V. Zarikas and T. Τsiftsis, “On the investigation of energy saving aspects of commercial lifts”, Energy Efficiency, Vol. 10, pp. 945–956,, (2017)

T. Tukia, S. Uimonen, M-L. Siikonen, H. Hakala and M. Lehtonen, “A study for improving the energy efficiency of lifts with adjustable counterweighting”, Journal of Building Services Engineering Research & Technology, Vol. 38(4), pp. 421-435,, (2017)

D-H. Yang, K-Y. Kim, M.K. Kwak and S. Lee, “Dynamic modeling and experiments on the coupled vibrations of building and elevator ropes”, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 390, pp. 164–191,, (2017)

L. Al-Sharif, G. Al Sukkar, A. Hakouz, and N.A. Al-Shamayleh, “Rule-based calculation and simulation design of elevator traffic systems for high-rise office buildings”, Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 38(5), pp. 536–562,, (2017)

R.S. Crespo, S. Kaczmarczyk, P. Picton and H. Su, “Modelling and simulation of a stationary high-rise elevator system to predict the dynamic interactions between its components”, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 137, pp. 24–45,, (2018)

R. Anand, B. Gayathridevi and B.K. Keshavan, “Vertical transportation: Effects of harmonics of drives by PM Machines”, Power Electronics and Drives, Vol. 3(1), pp. 47-53,, (2018)

T. Tukia, S. Uimonen, M-L. Siikonen, C. Donghi and M. Lehtonen, “High-resolution modeling of elevator power consumption”, Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 18, pp. 210–219,, (2018)

A. Durand and S. Hirzel, “Ecodesign preparatory study for lifts implementing the Ecodesign Working Plan 2016 -2019”, Final report, Project N° 617/PP/GR(MMA/17/1131/9709 for the conclusion of a specific contract in application of the Framework Contract No 409/PP/2014/FC Lot 2 with reopening of competitionpp. 1-62, (2018)

A. D. Suárez, O.J. Salcedo Parra and J.H. Díaz Forero, “Design of an elevator monitoring application using Internet of Things”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Vol. 13(6), pp. 4195-4202, (2018)

T. Kim, U.K. Lee, S.W. Kim, H. Lim, H., C.W. Kim, H. Cho and H., K.I. Kang, “Flexible double-cage hoist for high operational efficiency in tall building construction”, Automation in Construction, Vol. 96, pp. 280–291,, (2018)

Y. Zhou, K. Wang and H. Liu, “An elevator monitoring system based on the Internet of Things”, Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 131, pp. 541–544,, (2018)

Z. Ming, S. Han, Z. Zhang and S. Xia, “Elevator safety monitoring system based on Internet of Things”, International Journal of Online Engineering, Vol. 14, pp. 121-133,, (2018)

T. Krakowski and H. Ruta, “Analysis and assessment of energy efficiency of passenger lifts”, Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal, Vol. 12(3), pp. 257–265,, (2018)

A. So and L. Al-Sharif, “Calculation of the elevator round-trip time under destination group control using offline batch allocations and real-time allocations”, Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 22, pp. 549–561,, (2019)

Y. Bapin and V. Zarikas, “Smart buildings’ elevator with intelligent control algorithm based on Bayesian Networks”, (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 10(2), pp. 16-24, (2019),

S. Hirzel, A. Durand, J. Fong, C. Rohde and M. Bagheri, “Getting to the top floor: towards policy options to address the energy saving potentials of lifts”, ECEEE Summer Study Proceedings 2019, pp. 1335-1344, (2019)

T. Tukia, S. Uimonen, M-L. Siikonen, C. Donghi and M. Lehtonen, “Modeling the aggregated power consumption of elevators – the New York city case study”, Applied Energy, Vol. 251, 113356, pp. 1-17,, (2019)

Y. Aleksandrov, “New solution – a skyscraper with integrated floor gardens, multi-storey panoramic elevators and aquariums filled with fluorescent algae”, Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 25 (3), pp. 595–604, (2019)

M.M. Gichane, J.B. Byiringiro, A.K. Chesang, N.M. Peterson, M. Nyaga, R.K. Langat, H. Smajic and C.W. Kiiru, “Digital triplet approach for real-time monitoring and control of an elevator security system”, Designs, Vol. 4(2), 9, pp. 1-14,, (2020)

M. Maamir, O. Charrouf, A. Betka, M. Sellali and M. Becherif, “Neural network power management for hybrid electric elevator application”, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 167, pp. 155-175,, (2020)

M.U. Zubair and X. Zhang, “Explicit data - driven prediction model of annual energy consumed by elevators in residential buildings”, Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 31, 101278, pp. 1-7,, (2020)

L-D. Van, Y-B. Lin, T-H. Wu, and T-H. Chao, “Green elevator scheduling based on IoT communications”, IEEE Access, Vol. 8, pp. 38404-38415,, (2020)

K. Jakimovska, B. Stojcevska and A. Vasileva, “Assessment of intelligent solutions for improving elevators’ performances”, Journal of Information Technology and Applications (JITA), 10(2), pp. 112-119, , (2020)

T. Robal, U. Reinsalu and M. Leier, “Towards personalized elevator travel with smart elevator system”, Baltic Journal of Modern Computing, Vol. 8(4), pp. 675–697, , (2020)

L-D. Van, Y-B. Lin, T-H. Wu, and Y-C. Lin, “An intelligent elevator development and management system”, IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 14(2), pp. 3015-3026,, (2020)

Z. Dalala, T. Alwahsh and O. Saadeh, “Energy recovery control in elevators with automatic rescue application”, Journal of Energy Storage, Vol. 43, 103168, pp. 1-14,, (2021)

A. Rao and S. Mircevski, “Possibilities for energy saving predictions in elevators”, Power Electronics and Drives, Vol. 6(41), pp. 2018-228,, (2021)

P. Cortes, J. Munuzuri, A. Vazquez-Ledesma and L. Onieva, “Double deck elevator group control systems using evolutionary algorithms: Interfloor and lunchpeak traffic analysis”, Computers & Industrial Engineering, Vol. 155, 107190, pp. 1-15,, (2021)

I. Retolaza, I. Zulaika, A. Remirez, A., M.J. Cabello, M.A. Campos and A. Ramos, “New design for installation (DFI) methodology for large size and long life cycle products: Application to an elevator”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED21), pp. 2237-2246, (2021)

M. Belmonte and D. Trabucco, “The ropeless elevator: New transportation system for high-rise buildings (and beyond)”, International Journal of High-Rise Buildings, Vol 10(1), pp. 55-62,, (2021)

M. Makar, L. Pravica and M. Kutija, “Supercapacitor-based energy storage in elevators to improve energy efficiency of buildings”, Applied Sciences, Vol. 12(14), 7184, pp. 1-22,, (2022)

T. Robal, K. Bosov, U. Reinsalu and M. Leier, “A Study into elevator passenger in-cabin behaviour on a smart-elevator platform”, Baltic Journal of Modern Computing, Vol. 10(4), pp. 665–688,, (2022)

P. Chandirasekeran and S. Shridevi, “Smart elevator obstruction detection system using image classification”, (IJACSA) International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol. 13(4), pp. 134-141, (2022)

I.H.A. Al-Had, F.M. Mohammed and J.A.-K. Mohammed, “Modeling and simulation of electro-hydraulic telescopic elevator system controlled by programmable logic controller”, Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Vol. 27(1), pp. 71-78,, (2022)

A.T.H.T. Anh and L.H. Duc, “Super-capacitor energy storage system to recuperate regenerative braking energy in elevator operation of high buildings”, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol. 12(2), pp. 1358-1367, , (2022)

M.A.M. Aziz, G. Amer, M. Elmessiry and T. M. Al Khodragy, “Saving energy for elevators in high residential buildings”, Journal of Hunan University (Natural Sciences), Vol. 49(10), pp. pp. 1604-1617, (2022)

H. Fang, H-P. Qiu, P. Lin, S.M. Lo and J.T.Y. Lo, “Towards a smart elevator-aided fire evacuation scheme in high-rise apartment buildings for elderly”, IEEE Access, Vol. 10, pp. 90690-90705,, (2022).

J.D. Hunt, A. Nascimento, B. Zakeri, J. Jurasz, P.B. Dabek, P.S.F. Barbosa, R. Brandao, N.J. de Castro, W.L. Filho and K. Riahi, “Lift Energy Storage Technology: A solution for decentralized urban energy storage”, Energy, Vol. 254, 124102, pp. 1-12,, (2022)

D-S. Lee, K-H. Ji, J. Jing and J-H. Jo, “Experimental study on elevator door reopening problems caused by stack induced pressure differences across the elevator door in buildings”, Building and Environment, Vol. 221, 109271, pp. 1-11,, (2022)

M. Tomatis, C. Kukura, S. Djurovic, J. Apsley, D. Griffin, J. Griffin, R. Corner and L. Stamford, “Using circular economy business models and life cycle assessment to improve the sustainability of elevators”, The Sustainable City XVI, WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, Vol. (260), pp. 525-534,, (2022)

V. Valikyla, “Communication between collaborative mobile industrial robots and elevators”, Master’s Thesis, Aalto University, Finland, (2022)

Q. Xu, S. Ali, T. Yue and M. Arratibel, “Uncertainty-Aware transfer learning to evolve Digital Twins for industrial elevators”, ESEC/FSE 2022: Proceedings of the 30th ACM Joint European Software Engineering Conference and Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, pp. 1257-1268,, (2022)

H. Fang, Q. Wang, H. Qiu, C. Yang and S.M. Lo, “Investigation of elevator-aided evacuation strategies for older people in high-rise elderly housing”, Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 64, 105664, pp. 1-19,, (2023)

R. Peters, “Lift Energy Modelling for Green Building Design”, Proceedings of the 13th Symposium on Lift & Escalator Technologies, pp. 21-1 – 21-12, (2022)

O.M. Shete, D.V. Shete and S.G. Pise, “A survey paper on design and control of an elevator for smart city application”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Vol. 6(4), pp. 3021-3027,, (2017)

H. Sachs, H. Misuriello and S. Kwatra, Advancing elevator energy efficiency, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy - ACEEEDC, Report A1501, pp. 1-26, (2015)

P. Kropotin and I. Marchuk, On efficiency of load-lifting rope-traction mechanisms used in gravity energy storage systems, Journal of Energy Storage, Vol. 58, 106393, pp. 1-10, , (2023)

X. Wang, H. Feng, B. Xu, and X. Xu, Research on Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor for Ropeless Hoist System, JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, VOL. 7(6), pp. 1361-1368,, (2012) doi:10.4304/jcp.7.6.1361-136

X. Xu, W. Zhang, H. Feng and Y. Zhao, L. Ai, Performance analysis and optimization of permanent magnet flux switched linear motor for ropeless elevator, IET Electric Power Applications, Vol. 17, pp. 47–57,, (2023)

M.L. Siikonen, “People Flow in Buildings”, Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken (USA), (2022)

T.M. Harris, P.L. Eranki and A.E. Landis, “Life cycle assessment of proposed space elevator designs”, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 161, pp. 465-474,, (2019)

T. Okino, Y. Yamagiwa, S. Arita, Y. Ishikawa and K. Otsuka, “Three-dimensional analysis of a counterweight type space elevator”, Acta Astronautica, Vol. 185, pp. 132–139,, (2021)

International Organization for Standardization, “Energy performance of lifts, escalators and moving walks - part 3: energy calculation and classification of escalators and moving walks”, (2015)