Method for determining the forces acting on a axle box designed for the installation of an adapter bearing

Main Article Content

Dobrinka Atmadzhova
Vanio Ralev


The installation of adapter bearings (cassette type) provides new opportunities to achieve longer maintenance intervals and to improve performance and safety. In the developed methodologies for calculating the forces acting on a axle box unit in European and state standards, dependencies are defined for axle boxes with short cylindrical rollers and conical or cassette type bearings where the transmission of the vertical load between the axle box and the bearings is on a cylindrical surface. In the contact area of a segment, in addition to the standard static, dynamic, centrifugal and inertial forces of the axle box, additional forces also act. Overloading occurs when the axle box has become detached from the bearing by lifting off of it. Under these conditions, the transmission of forces between the axle box and the bearing takes place not through the normal tight contact along a segment of 120º, but through the edge of the axle box shell. In this publication, a method is proposed for determining the forces in an axle box designed for the installation of an adapter bearing.

Article Details

How to Cite
Atmadzhova, D., & Ralev, V. (2023). Method for determining the forces acting on a axle box designed for the installation of an adapter bearing . Engineering TODAY, 2(3).
Original Scientific Papers


D. Petrović and R. Rakanović, “Železnička vozila - Praktikum”, Mašinski fakultet Kraljevo, Kraljevo (Serbia), (2006)

D. Petrović and V. Aleksandrov, “Železnička vozila - Osnove”, Fakultet za mašinstvo i građevinarstvo u Kraljevu, Kraljevo (Serbia), (2013)

T. Karadjov and J. Dimitrov, “Wagons”, S. (1988)

TRANSWAGON – Burgas, Bogie Y25Lsd1, Y25Ls1-(K) and Y25Lsd1-(K),

BDS EN12080:2007+A1:2010 Railway applications - Axleboxes - Rolling bearings

BDS EN 12081:2007+A1:2010 Railway applications - Axleboxes - Lubricating greases

BDS EN 12082:2007+A1:2010 Railway applications - Axleboxes - Performance testing

Rolling Bearings NTN Online Catalog, › docs › ntn_rolling_bearings_bg

I. Kolarov and G. Dimchev, “Machine elements textbook”, VTU “T. Kableshkov”, Sofia (Bulgaria) (2018)

I. Kolarov, “Fundamentals of construction. Electronic textbook”, VTU “T. Kableshkov”, Sofia (Bulgaria), (2016)

I. Kolarov and I. Starkalev, “Course design guide by machine elements”, VTU “T. Kableshkov”, Sofia (Bulgaria), (2014)

M. Ognjatović, “Mašinski elementi“, Mašinski fakultet Beograd, Beograd (Serbia), (2019)

V. Miltenović, “Mašinski elementi – oblici, proračun, primena”, Mašinski fakultet Niš, Niš (Serbia), (2019)

V. Nikolić, “Mašinski elementi”, Mašinski fakultet Kragujevac, Kragujevac (Serbia), (2004)

UIC 510-1 WAGONS - RUNNING GEAR – NORMALISATION9th Edition, January 1978

M. Bižić and D. Petrović, “Basics of experimental determination of wheel-rail contact forces by using instrumented wheelsets”, IMK-14 – Research and Development in Heavy Machinery, Vol. 23(2), pp. 63-68,, (2017)

P. Čukić and D. Ružić, “Otpornost materijala 1; 2”, Mašinski fakultet u Beogradu, Belgrade (Serbia), (1992)